Friday, March 09, 2007

Darfur is a "Water War"

In at least one previous post of mine, I alluded to the idea that conflicts in the age of global warming could possibly be linked to the availability of water. Xanthippas put up an in-depth post about global warming's threat to the United States. Even so, I didn't expect to see the conflict in Darfur analyzed as a "water war". In this article in The Atlantic Monthly (subscription required), Stephan Faris makes a strong case for it.

In 2003, a rebellion began in Darfur—a reaction against Khartoum's neglect and political marginalization of the region. And while the rebels initially sought a pan-ethnic front, the schism between those who opposed the government and those who supported it broke largely on ethnic lines. Even so, the conflict was rooted more in land envy than in ethnic hatred. "Interestingly, most of the Arab tribes who have their own land rights did not join the government's fight," says David Mozersky, the International Crisis Group's project director for the Horn of Africa.

Why did Darfur's lands fail? For much of the 1980s and '90s, environmental degradation in Darfur and other parts of the Sahel (the semi-arid region just south of the Sahara) was blamed on the inhabitants. Dramatic declines in rainfall were attributed to mistreatment of the region's vegetation. Imprudent land use, it was argued, exposed more rock and sand, which absorb less sunlight than plants, instead reflecting it back toward space. This cooled the air near the surface, drawing clouds downward and reducing the chance of rain. "Africans were said to be doing it to themselves," says Isaac Held, a senior scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

But by the time of the Darfur conflict four years ago, scientists had identified another cause. Climate scientists fed historical sea-surface temperatures into a variety of computer models of atmospheric change. Given the particular pattern of ocean-temperature changes worldwide, the models strongly predicted a disruption in African monsoons. "This was not caused by people cutting trees or overgrazing," says Columbia University's Alessandra Giannini, who led one of the analyses. The roots of the drying of Darfur, she and her colleagues had found, lay in changes to the global climate.

If we don't do anything about climate change, we have more of this to look forward to.

De Waal was traveling through the dry scrub of Darfur, studying indigenous reactions to the drought that gripped the region. In a herders' camp near the desert's border, he met with a bedridden and nearly blind Arab sheikh named Hilal Abdalla, who said he was noticing things he had never seen before: Sand blew into fertile land, and the rare rain washed away alluvial soil. Farmers who had once hosted his tribe and his camels were now blocking their migration; the land could no longer support both herder and farmer. Many tribesmen had lost their stock and scratched at millet farming on marginal plots.

The God-given order was broken, the sheikh said, and he feared the future. "The way the world was set up since time immemorial was being disturbed," recalled de Waal. "And it was bewildering, depressing. And the consequences were terrible."

In 2003, another scourge, now infamous, swept across Darfur. Janjaweed fighters in military uniforms, mounted on camels and horses, laid waste to the region. In a campaign of ethnic cleansing targeting Darfur's blacks, the armed militiamen raped women, burned houses, and tortured and killed men of fighting age. Through whole swaths of the region, they left only smoke curling into the sky.


adam said...

Great article

Xanthippas said...

A good article, but a dispiriting one. Jared Diamond discusses something similar in his book "Collapse." Part of a chapter is devoted to the Rwandan genocide, and Diamond discusses how studies revealed that in areas where there was greater competition for reserouces, there was killing even beyond the ethnically motivated killing, of Hutus by other Hutus, trying to secure their land and resources. One of the best things I got out of Diamond's book is the idea that a political study of conflict is not always complete; often, conflict over resources comes disguised as ethnic conflict, or ethnic conflict is provoked or exacerbated by the deprivation of natural resources. This article is a great reminder of that fact. And, such conflict is something that we can only look forward to more of if we don't take serious steps to balance our needs with the resources the environment can provide.